Near Critical Gas Condensate Relative Permeability of Carbonates

Huseyin Calisgan1, Serhat Akin*, 2
1 TPAO Research Center, Ankara, Turkey
2 Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

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© 2008 Calisgan et al.;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: * Address correspondence to this author at the Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; E-mail:


Typical gas condensate fields contain a gas/liquid system during depletion. Such systems are difficult to model experimentally because they exhibit near-miscible behavior at high pressure and temperature. One way to simplify laboratory experimentation is to use a binary retrograde condensate fluid and to adjust temperature to control miscibility. A series of relative permeability test were conducted on a moderate-permeability carbonate core using methanol/n-hexane at near miscible conditions in the presence of immobile water. Potassium carbonate was added to the water to prevent miscibility with methanol. The experiments used a pseudo-steady-state technique under conditions similar to the near well region of a carbonate gas-condensate reservoir. The flow of gas and condensate at different force ratios was investigated. Relative permeabilities were obtained by matching historical production and pressure data using a coreflood simulator. It was observed that relative permeability depended on fluid composition and flow rate as well as initial condensate and water saturations. As the wetting phase (condensate) flow rate increased or interfacial tension decreased, relative permeability versus wetting phase saturation curves shifted towards lower wetting phase saturations. It was found that a simple three-parameter mathematical model that depends on a new dimensionless number called condensate number successfully modeled the gas-condensate relative permeability data. The developed model resulted in a good agreement with published gas-condensate relative permeability data as well as end point relative permeabilities and saturations. The relative permeability behavior as a function of IFT highly resembles the one observed in sandstones.

Keywords: Condensate, relative permeability, model.