Laboratory Study and Prediction of Calcium Sulphate at High-Salinity Formation Water
Amer Badr Bin Merdhah*, Abu Azam Mohd Yassin
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2008
First Page: 62
Last Page: 73
Publisher Id: TOPEJ-1-62
Article History:Received Date: 1/9/2008
Revision Received Date: 20/9/2008
Acceptance Date: 7/10/2008
Electronic publication date: 18/12/2008
Collection year: 2008
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Scale formation is one of the most serious oil field problems that inflict water injection systems primarily when two incompatible waters are involved. Two waters are incompatible if they interact chemically and precipitate minerals when mixed. This study was conducted to investigate the permeability reduction caused by deposition of calcium sulphate in sandstone cores from mixing of injected sea water and formation water that contained high concentration of calcium ion at various temperatures (50 - 80°C) and differential pressures (100 - 200 psig). The solubility of calcium sulphate scale formed and how its solubility was affected by changes in salinity and temperatures (40 - 90°C) were also studied. The morphology and particle size of scaling crystals formed as shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were also presented. The results showed that a large extent of permeability reduction caused by calcium sulphate that deposited on the rock pore surface. The rock permeability decline indicates the influence of the concentration of calcium ions. At higher temperatures, the deposition of CaSO4 scale increases since the solubility of CaSO4 scale decreases with increasing temperature. The deposition of CaSO4 scale during flow of injection waters into porous media was shown by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The results were utilized to build a general reaction rate equation to predict CaSO4 deposition in sandstone cores for a given temperature, brine super-saturation and differential pressures.